Etiqueta: autumn

thanksgiving

THANKSGIVING: ORIGINS AND STORY

Hello everyone and welcome back to INK Lingua’s blog. Today we are going to explore Thanksgiving day, which took place last Thursday, so we can know a little bit more about it and its origin. Let’s go!

Most stories of Thanksgiving history start with the harvest celebration of the pilgrims and the Native Americans that took place in the autumn of 1621. Although they did have a three-day feast in celebration of a good harvest, and the local natives did participate, this “first thanksgiving” was not a holiday, simply a gathering. There is little evidence that this feast of thanks led directly to our modern Thanksgiving Day holiday. Thanksgiving can, however, be traced back to 1863 when Pres. Lincoln became the first president to proclaim Thanksgiving Day. The holiday has been a fixture of late November ever since.

Pilgrims and Indians

However, since most school children are taught that the first Thanksgiving was held in 1621 with the Pilgrims and Indians, let us take a closer look at just what took place leading up to that event, and then what happened in the centuries afterward that finally gave us our modern Thanksgiving.

The Pilgrims who sailed to this country aboard the Mayflower were originally members of the English Separatist Church (a Puritan sect). They had earlier fled their home in England and sailed to Holland (The Netherlands) to escape religious persecution. There, they enjoyed more religious tolerance, but they eventually became disenchanted with the Dutch way of life, thinking it ungodly. Seeking a better life, the Separatists negotiated with a London stock company to finance a pilgrimage to America. Most of those making the trip aboard the Mayflower were non-Separatists, but were hired to protect the company’s interests. Only about one-third of the original colonists were Separatists.

The Pilgrims set ground at Plymouth Rock on December 11, 1620. Their first winter was devastating. At the beginning of the following fall, they had lost 46 of the original 102 who sailed on the Mayflower. But the harvest of 1621 was a bountiful one. And the remaining colonists decided to celebrate with a feast – including 91 natives who had helped the Pilgrims survive their first year. It is believed that the Pilgrims would not have made it through the year without the help of the natives. The feast was more of a traditional English harvest festival than a true “thanksgiving” observance. It lasted three days.

More about the feast

Governor William Bradford sent “four men fowling” after wild ducks and geese. It is not certain that wild turkey was part of their feast. However, it is certain that they had venison. The term “turkey” was used by the Pilgrims to mean any sort of wild fowl.

Another modern staple at almost every Thanksgiving table is pumpkin pie. But it is unlikely that the first feast included that treat. The supply of flour had been long diminished, so there was no bread or pastries of any kind. However, they did eat boiled pumpkin, and they produced a type of fried bread from their corn crop. There was also no milk, cider, potatoes, or butter. There was no domestic cattle for dairy products, and the newly-discovered potato was still considered by many Europeans to be poisonous. But the feast did include fish, berries, watercress, lobster, dried fruit, clams, venison, and plums.

This “thanksgiving” feast was not repeated the following year. Many years passed before the event was repeated. It wasn’t until June of 1676 that another Day of Thanksgiving was proclaimed. On June 20 of that year the governing council of Charlestown, Massachusetts, held a meeting to determine how best to express thanks for the good fortune that had seen their community securely established. By unanimous vote they instructed Edward Rawson, the clerk, to proclaim June 29 as a day of thanksgiving. It is notable that this thanksgiving celebration probably did not include Native Americans, as the celebration was meant partly to be in recognition of the colonists’ recent victory over the “heathen natives”. By then, it had become apparent to the settlers that the natives were a hindrance to their quest for more land, so the goodwill they shared at the first feast had long been lost.

History Facts

A hundred years later, in October of 1777 all 13 colonies joined in a thanksgiving celebration. It also commemorated the patriotic victory over the British at Saratoga. But it was a one-time affair.

George Washington proclaimed a National Day of Thanksgiving in 1789, although some were opposed to it. There was discord among the colonies, many feeling the hardships of a few pilgrims did not warrant a national holiday. And later, President Thomas Jefferson opposed the idea of having a day of thanksgiving.

It was Sarah Josepha Hale, a magazine editor, whose efforts eventually led to what we recognize as Thanksgiving. Hale wrote many editorials championing her cause in her Boston Ladies’ Magazine, and later, in Godey’s Lady’s Book. Finally, after a 40-year campaign of writing editorials and letters to governors and presidents, Hale’s obsession became a reality when, in 1863, President Lincoln proclaimed the last Thursday in November as a national day of Thanksgiving.

Thanksgiving was proclaimed by every president after Lincoln. The date was changed a couple of times, most recently by Franklin Roosevelt, who set it up one week to the next-to-last Thursday in order to create a longer Christmas shopping season. Public uproar against this decision caused the president to move Thanksgiving back to its original date two years later. And in 1941, Thanksgiving was finally sanctioned by Congress as a legal holiday, as the fourth Thursday in November.

Do you want to know more about Thanksgiving? Please, check: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thanksgiving_(United_States)

FALL IDIOMS

IDIOMS FOR AUTUMN: all the leaves are falling down

Welcome back, dear students! El BLOG de INK Lingua vuelve a sus andadas una vez más tras una breve pero necesaria pausa para recargar pilas y traeros nuevo contenido de calidad. Hoy os traemos una entrada sobre IDIOMS, expresiones y frases hechas en inglés. IDIOMS FOR AUTUMN!

FALL IDIOMS
IDIOMS FOR AUTUMN

OUR IDIOMS FOR AUTUMN

Como os decíamos, en esta entrada vamos a conocer algunos de los idioms o expresiones más importantes de temática otoñal (autumn or fall). De esta manera, recopilamos aquí una lista de ellos con sus definiciones y ejemplos de uso.

Apple of (someone’s) eye

The person who is most loved or cherished by someone else; the person someone is most proud of.

Did he know he has 9 grandchildren!! And all of them are boys except for one. And his granddaughter is certainly the apple of his eye. He adores her.

The apple never falls far from the tree

Used when someone has characters or traits as his/her relatives or parents; when someone behaves just like his/her relatives or parents.

Laura is planning to go to medical school next fall. She says she wants to be a surgeon like her father and grandfather. I guess the apple never falls far from the tree.

To drive someone nuts

Making someone feel crazy; to exasperate someone; to make someone feel annoyed to distraction. (Similar expressions: to drive someone crazy, driving someone bonkers, to drive someone up a wall)

PLEASE turn down your music!!! I can’t think, I can’t study, I can’t do anything. You’re driving me nuts!

To turn over a new leaf

Beginning again; to start anew; reforming; refreshing.

I’m serious this time. I know I always say I’m going to quit smoking but I’m really serious. It’s time to turn over a new leaf. I just had my annual medical exam and it wasn’t good. It’s time to quit.

Save for a rainy day

To reserve something (usually money) for a future need. (Similar expressions: to put something away for a rainy day, to keep something for a rainy day)

I didn’t expect to receive this much for my annual bonus! I’m glad to have some extra money to save for a rainy day.

I just purchased a new board game for the kids. They’re going to love it! But I’m not going to give it to them yet. I saved it for a rainy day during the winter school break.

To feel/be under the weather

To feel ill; unwell.

I’m so sorry to cancel our lunch meeting but I’m feeling under the weather. I think it’s best if I go home to get some rest. I can’t afford to be sick this week!

To get wind of something

learning of or hearing about something; to learn about something secret; to hear a piece of information that was supposed to be a secret.

I just had a job interview with a new company! I’m so excited. But please don’t tell anyone yet. I don’t want my boss to get wind of the fact that I’m looking for a new job.

¡Pues esto ha sido todo por hoy! Esperamos que hayáis aprendido y conocido nuevas expresiones y que, por supuesto, las uséis en esta época del año tan propia. A nosotros nos encanta el otoño, digamos que: «we FALL for Autumn!», ¿y vosotros?

Como siempre os animamos a comentar con cualquier duda, pregunta o aportación. Nos encanta leeros y conocer más de vosotros. No olvidéis que estamos en varias redes sociales (Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Instagram, etc.) así como en nuestra página web: http://inklingua.es/

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